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Do nutritional supplements have a role in Age Macular Degeneration prevention?

Tipo: Artículo
Autores: Maria D. Pinazo-Durán, Francisco Gómez-Ulla, Luis Arias, Javier Araiz, Ricardo Casaroli, Roberto Gallego-Pinazo, José J García-Medina, María Isabel López-Gálvez, Lucía Manzanas, Anna Salas, Miguel Zapata, Manuel Diaz-Llopis y Alfredo García-Layana.
Colaboradores: RD12-0034-0008 Hospital Universitario y Politécnico la Fe de Valencia; RD12-0034-0017 Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Santiago de Compostela; RD12-0034-0015 Hospital Valle de Hebrón;RD12-0034-0001 Instituto Universitario de OftalmoBiología Aplicada (IOBA); RD12-0034-0011 Complejo Hospitalario Universitario de Albacete; RD12-0034-0005 Hospital Clínico de Barcelona y RD12-0034-0013 Clínica Universidad de Navarra.
Centro: Grupo de Oftalmobiología Celular y Molecular de la Universidad de Valencia y Unidad de Investigación Oftalmológica

Purpose: To review the proposed pathogenic mechanisms of age macular degeneration (AMD), as well as the role of antioxidants (AOX) and omega 3 fatty acids (?-3) supplements in AMD prevention.
Materials and Methods: Current knowledge on the cellular/molecular mechanisms of AMD, and the epidemiologic/experimental studies on the effects of AOX and ?-3 were addressed all together with the scientific evidence and the personal opinion of professionals involved in the Retina Group of the OFTARED (Spain).
Results: High dietary intakes of ?-3 and macular pigments lutein/zeaxanthin are associated with lower risk of prevalence and incidence in AMD. The Age-Related Eye Disease study (AREDS) showed a beneficial effect of high doses of vitamins C, E, beta-carotene and zinc/copper in reducing the rate of progression to advanced AMD in patients with intermediate AMD or with one sided late AMD. The AREDS-2 study has showed that lutein and zeaxanthin may substitute beta-carotene because of its potential relationship with increased lung cancer incidence.
Conclusion: Research has proved that elder people with poor diets, especially with low AOX and ?-3 micronutrients intake and subsequently having low plasmatic levels, are more prone to developing AMD. Micronutrient supplementation enhances antioxidant defense and healthy eyes, and might prevent/retard/modify AMD.